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原标题:双语阅读,馨安百日立陶宛共和国(Republic of L

浏览次数:64 时间:2019-05-04

人一生中要排多少便便?美国趣味科学网站近日给出了答案。该网站称,人们便便的数量可能根据年龄、体重、饮食、运动和其他因素会有很大差异。

A report issued last month by the Government Accountability Office shows that wealthier Americans, who are often able to delay receiving Social Security, are living longer and therefore collecting more money from the government.CREDITPHOTOGRAPH BY TETRA IMAGES / CORBIS

一、句子——英文(E)

图片 1

1、If stress and fatigue kept women from breastfeeding, none of us would be here today.

A person's accomplishments accumulate over years and decades. Something else accumulates, too — their poop.

There may be no better way to appreciate humanity’s growing prosperity than to consider how long we live. A child born in 1900—little more than a century ago—was likely, on average, to die by the age of thirty. Today, according to theWorld Bank, the comparable figure is seventy-one. That is a worldwide average and so, of course, there is a considerable gulf between rich countries in Europe and Asia, where people live into their eighties, and the poorest nations in sub-Saharan Africa, where people born today will struggle to live to fifty. Nonetheless, even a child born in Chad, which has the world’s lowest life expectancy—49.81 years—will live two years longer than did the average white American male born in 1900.

2、Our early forebears had no other choice but to breastfeed, and it certainly didn't stop them from having babies.

人们所获得的成就经年累月地积累,还有其他一些东西的总量也在不断累加——他们的便便。

Globally, the inequality in life expectancy is shrinking. Unfortunately, this effect, which the demographer Nicholas Eberstadt has aptly described as a “survival revolution,” does not apply to our country. Here,according to a studypublished in the most recent issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the numbers are moving in the opposite direction.

3、Your breastfed baby's bowel movements and habits are quite different from those of a formula-fed baby.

The quantities of poop that people leave behind during an individual bathroom break can vary widely, depending on age, body weight, diet, exercise and other factors.

It will surprise nobody to learn that life expectancy increases with income. Coming, however, in the midst of a Presidential campaign in which the corrosive effects of income inequality have been a principal debate topic, the data and its implications for public policy are particularly striking: the richest one per cent of American men live 14.6 years longer on average than the poorest one per cent. For women, the average difference is a just over ten years.

4、Your baby may move her bowels quite frequently, possibly after every feeding during the first month.

人们排出体外的便便数量可能会因年龄、体重、饮食、运动及其他因素的不同有很大差异。

The gap appears to be growing fast. The researchers, led by Raj Chetty, a professor of economics at Stanford University, analyzed more than 1.4 billion federal tax returns, as well as mortality data from the Social Security Administration, from the years 2001 to 2014. In that period, the life expectancy of the richest five per cent of Americans increased by roughly three years. For the poorest five per cent, there was no increase.

5、Breastfed babies tend to excrete less waste than formula-fed infants, because human milk is digested so completely.

But how much poop does the average person produce in their lifetime?

What does a three-year difference mean? According to federal statistics cited in the study, eliminating every cancer death in the United States would add roughly three years to the average lifespan. For the richest Americans, then, the longevity increases of the past fifteen years have been the equivalent of curing cancer.

6、Constipation is rare among breastfed babies and is not defined by frequency of stools or by straining at a bowel movement.

那么,一般来说人们一生中会排出多少便便呢?

“To give you a sense of the magnitude’’ of the difference in life expectancy between rich and poor Americans, Chettytold NPR, “men in the bottom one per cent have life expectancy comparable to the average life expectancy in Pakistan or Sudan.’’

7、Each baby comes into this world with a unique personality.

Moving one's bowels is part of the normal digestive process for most animals; after nutrients are extracted from food and liquid, waste is eliminated as urine and feces.

To the surprise of many experts, including those who did the research, the study found that the poorest Americans live considerably longer in some cities than in others. In New York, Los Angeles, and Miami, for example, the lowest quarter of income earners lived, on average, until the age of eighty-one. That’s only a few years less than the richest one per cent—and far longer than poor Americans in other regions. The cities with the shortest lifespans for the poor include Las Vegas, Tulsa, and Indianapolis.

8、Children's temperaments influence the way we respond to them.

排便是大多数动物正常消化过程中的一部分;人们从食物和液体中摄取营养物质后将废物作为尿液和便便排出。

Public-health officials often operate under the assumption that vast differences in access to health care would explain that kind of discrepancy. In this study, it didn’t. The report appears to have laid waste to another dogma: that poor people who live in America’s most stressful, crowded, and expensive cities face the biggest challenges to their health. At least with regard to how long one lives, the opposite appears to be true. People lived longer in cities, whether expensive or not, with highly educated residents, high incomes, and where local government invested in public health.

9、Since you'll respond to your baby's personality, it's helpful to try to figure out his temperament and to accept his uniqueness as an individual.

Human stool, when healthy, is usually made up of about 70-percent solids and 30-percent fluids, Kim Barrett, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego, told Live Science. Personal bowel habits notwithstanding, on average, both men and women move their bowels about once per day and produce a daily average of 400 to 500 grams of feces, Barrett said.

The reasons for the difference are not clear, although the authors point out that cities like New York often have aggressive anti-smoking policies and make it harder for people to eat trans fats, and drink sugary sodas—which are implicated in common diseases like obesity and diabetes.

10、Whichever way your baby is, the important thing for you to do is to accept and love him for the way he is, not for the way you woule like him to be.

加利福尼亚大学圣迭戈分校医学教授金?巴雷特对趣味科学网站记者说,健康的人类便便通常由70%的固体和30%的流体组成。巴雷特说,尽管个人的排便习惯不同,但男性和女性平均每天排便一次,排泄量平均约为400-500克。

The findings are sure to offer ammunition to those who argue for greater investment in community and public health. “Amid the excitement over personalized medicine,’’Steven H. Woolf and Jason Q. Purnell wrote in an accompanying editorial, “the fact remains that a patient’s zip code may be more useful for targeting therapy than his or her genotype. The ability of patients to understand, personalize, and implement treatment plans is influenced by their education, language, literacy, and neighborhood resources.’’

二、句子——中文(C)

Researchers have even identified the speed at which humans generally produce their poo: about 2 centimeters per second, Live Science previously reported. Constipation — being unable to move one's bowels — can lead to longer, or more uncomfortable bathroom sessions. However, the amount of time a person typically dedicates to unobstructed defecation is about 12 seconds per stool, and is uniform across many animal species regardless of their size, according to David Hu, an associate professor of mechanical engineering and biology at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Patricia Yang, a Georgia Tech doctoral candidate in mechanical engineering.

The longevity gap between rich and poor has already begun to have a profound effect on Social Security, according to aGovernment Accountability Officereport that was issued last month. Americans are entitled to receive retirement benefits at the age of sixty-two. But many wait to retire (benefits must begin by age seventy), and those who do wait earn bigger Social Security checks. Since those who are able to wait are often richer they also tend to live longer and therefore will collect more money from the government.

1、如果压力和疲劳使女性无法哺乳,那么我们都不会存在。

根据趣味科学网站此前的报道,研究人员甚至确定了人类排便的平均速度:大约每秒2厘米。便秘(难以排便)可能令人们在卫生间待的时间更长、更不舒服。然而,佐治亚理工学院机械工程和生物系副教授戴维?胡和机械工程学博士研究生帕特里夏?杨认为,每个人每次顺畅排便的时间大约是12秒,而且许多动物物种都是如此,无论其体型大小。

2、我们先祖除了母乳喂养外别无选择,这当然也没能阻止他们继续生育。

Starting with an average daily amount of about 400 grams, the total poop production in a week's time would be about 2.8 kilograms. In a year, a single person would yield about 145 kg of poop — just a little more than an adult panda weighs.

3、你的母乳宝宝的排便习惯和奶粉宝宝截然不同。

从平均每天排便约400克开始计算,一周的排便量约为2.8公斤。一年间,一个人的排便量将达到大约145公斤——比一只成年熊猫的体重略多一点。

The formula for calculating monthly Social Security benefits is supposed to be progressive. Payments are meant to provide a proportionally larger monthly income for lower earners than for higher earners. However, when viewed in terms of benefits received over a lifetime, the disparities in life expectancy across income groups nullify the progressive effect of the program: the rich collect payments for years longer. In other words, a growing share of Social Security benefits will go to people with higher incomes and a shrinking share are going to those with lower incomes.

4、你的宝宝可能会频繁排便,月子里可能每次喂奶后都会排便。

In the US, the average life expectancy for men is about 76 years old, and for women, it is around 81 years old. Therefore, a man living to age 76 would produce about 11,030 kg of poop over his lifetime, and a woman living to age 81 would produce about 11,757 kg — so a lifetime of a woman's poop weighs about as much as three adult male hippos.

Such disparities may reshape the very foundation of American social-welfare policy. “A medical journal article reporting that income is significantly associated with life expectancy is a call to arms,’’ the authors of the editorial inJAMAwrote, “ but the answer cannot come from medicine or public health alone.’’ Instead, it will have to come from the realm of politics. And until such answers begin to be translated into laws, two things are certain to keep growing: the prosperity of rich Americans, and the suffering of the poor.

5、母乳宝宝的排泄物比奶粉宝宝的要少,因为母乳消化吸收的很充分。

在美国,男性的平均预期寿命约为76岁,而女性的平均预期寿命约为81岁。因此,一个活到76岁的男子一生将产生大约11030公斤便便。一个活到81岁的女人一生会产生大约11757公斤的便便——相当于三只成年雄性河马的重量。

6、母乳宝宝发生便秘是罕见的,并且便秘不由排便频率或排便时的费力情况来定义。

Recently, the stark reality of how much poop humans can produce prompted action from officials at Denali National Park and Reserve in Alaska. Years of unregulated pooping by visitors to Denali, North America's tallest mountain, left an estimated 69,000 to 98,000 kg of feces deposited on the mountain between 1951 and 2012.

7、每个婴儿都带着独特的个性来到这个世界。

最近,人们便便总量的残酷事实促使阿拉斯加州德纳里国家公园和保护区的负责人们采取了行动。德纳里峰是北美最高的山峰。据估计在1951年到2012年间,到访德纳里峰的游客在山中随地排便达6.9万至9.8万公斤。

8、孩子的性格会影响我们回应他们的方式。

Another unpleasant reality is that 4.5 billion people around the world do not have access to household toilets that safely dispose of their waste, according to the United Nations. And each year, over 181 million metric tons of human waste goes untreated, with more than 90 percent of sewage in the developing world released directly into oceans, lakes and rivers.

9、既然你会对宝宝的性格做出反应,那么试着弄清楚他的性格并接受他作为个体的独特性是很有帮助的。

另一个让人不悦的事实是,据联合国的数据,全球45亿人家中没有洗手间,无法安全处理排泄问题。每年,未经处理的人类排泄物达1.81亿公吨。发展中国家超过90%的排泄物直接排入海洋、河流和湖泊。

10、不管你的宝宝是怎样的,你要做的最重要的事情是接受他、爱他所是,而非如你所愿。

At least 1.8 billion people worldwide depend on a drinking water source that is contaminated by fecal residue; poor sanitation leads to disease outbreaks and public health crises that affect millions of people each year — many of them children. However, improving access to clean water and implementing better sanitation practices could prevent approximately 842,000 deaths each year, according to reports from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund.

三、表达——英中(EC)

全球至少有18亿人的饮用水受到便便残渣污染。糟糕的卫生状况导致疾病爆发和公共健康危机,每年有数百万人受到影响,其中很多是儿童。但根据世界卫生组织和联合国儿童基金会的报告,让更多人喝到清洁水以及贯彻执行更好的卫生行为每年可以防止大约84.2万人死亡。

1、no other choice——别无选择

2、bowel movement——大便、排便

3、figure out——想出、解决、弄明白

四、表达——中英(CE)

1、别无选择——no other choice

2、大便、排便——bowel movement

3、想出、解决、弄明白——figure out

五、句子——中文(C)

1、如果压力和疲劳使女性无法哺乳,那么我们都不会存在。

2、我们先祖除了母乳喂养外别无选择,这当然也没能阻止他们继续生育。

3、你的母乳宝宝的排便习惯和奶粉宝宝截然不同。

4、你的宝宝可能会频繁排便,月子里可能每次喂奶后都会排便。

5、母乳宝宝的排泄物比奶粉宝宝的要少,因为母乳消化吸收的很充分。

6、母乳宝宝发生便秘是罕见的,并且便秘不由排便频率或排便时的费力情况来定义。

7、每个婴儿都带着独特的个性来到这个世界。

8、孩子的性格会影响我们回应他们的方式。

9、既然你会对宝宝的性格做出反应,那么试着弄清楚他的性格并接受他作为个体的独特性是很有帮助的。

10、不管你的宝宝是怎样的,你要做的最重要的事情是接受他、爱他所是,而非如你所愿。

六、句子——英文(E)

1、If stress and fatigue kept women from breastfeeding, none of us would be here today.

2、Our early forebears had no other choice but to breastfeed, and it certainly didn't stop them from having babies.

3、Your breastfed baby's bowel movements and habits are quite different from those of a formula-fed baby.

4、Your baby may move her bowels quite frequently, possibly after every feeding during the first month.

5、Breastfed babies tend to excrete less waste than formula-fed infants, because human milk is digested so completely.

6、Constipation is rare among breastfed babies and is not defined by frequency of stools or by straining at a bowel movement.

7、Each baby comes into this world with a unique personality.

8、Children's temperaments influence the way we respond to them.

9、Since you'll respond to your baby's personality, it's helpful to try to figure out his temperament and to accept his uniqueness as an individual.

10、Whichever way your baby is, the important thing for you to do is to accept and love him for the way he is, not for the way you woule like him to be.

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